The Haunting of the Alienated Child

I have been reading Oliver James’s book ‘Not in Your Genes‘ this week and in doing so have found myself uncovering another layer of understanding of what it means to be a child in the post separation landscape.  In this book, James speaks of ‘offspring Stockholm syndrome’ which he describes as being the manner in which children are forced to curry favour with the parents they depend upon, simply because of their absolute dependency upon them.  Which if one thinks carefully about parent/child relationships, is exactly what children are forced to do in order to survive.  In reading this, I am reminded of Alice Miller’s work on children and the way in which she uncovers the terrorism of parenting in her exploration of child maltreatment in her book ‘for your own good.’  This book, more than any other in my long years of reading about children, opened my eyes to the reality that when parenting is healthy, children can become their own person.  When it is unhealthy however, the core wounds which are passed forward between parent and child, are those which were unresolved in the family history.  Unhealthy parenting is how trans-generational haunting occurs.  People pleasing, is one of the behavioural significators that such haunting is present in a family.

People pleasing is a negative behaviour which is very close to psychological splitting in the manner in which it requires the person doing the pleasing to split off their negative feelings and deny them in order fulfil the needs of others.  As such it is a behaviour which is seen in families where there are very poor boundaries and where keeping everyone happy is a strong goal in the central control panel of the family.  In such families, there is likely to be one or more people (usually but not always) women, who control the emotional space.  Within this group of women, there is likely to be one dominant, usually older woman, who is the leader.  This person is likely to present as being selfless and kind, nurturing and long suffering.  This is a mask which hides the reality, that this person and her acolytes, are controlling the emotional energy within the family.  In short, what happens in the family is about what this person wants or needs to happen in order to make her feel emotionally stable.  This is presented with sleight of hand however, to make it appear that this person is endlessly meeting the needs of others.

In such a family, beliefs about other people outside of the family circle are usually that anyone not ‘in’ is an outsider and that outsiders are dangerous people.  The people pleaser at the heart of this family circle, is unlikely to allow herself to be the visible controller of this in/out dichotomy, but is likely to rely upon an enforcer of the rule, such as a husband or brother or father.  This male person, is likely to appear to the outside world, to be the one who must be pleased.  The people pleaser may make it appear that she is pleasing this person first and foremost. This male figure is likely to be presented as being controlling to others, but in reality he is being controlled, in that he is being required to play his designated role in keeping the people pleaser emotionally stable.  This male figure becomes the regulatory object for the people pleaser who may interweave use of this male figure with her children.

A regulatory object is a relationship with someone who is expected to provide the behavioural responses which soothe and calm an unstable personality.  Unstable personality is often seen in people who please others and is indicative of boundary diffusions.  People who live in a world with windows and a house without doors, in which the outside world is defended against as being dangerous and the internal world of the family is without boundary, are likely to have unstable personality. They are also likely to use their children and others as regulatory objects.

When a child is born into a family where this type of covert dysfunction is dominant, their needs as individual sovereign human beings, become subsumed into the vaporous needs of the people pleaser.  Whilst on the surface this person is likely to be helpful and attentive, the underlying themes in the relational space are those of controlling how the child will be related to.  Relational management is a core driver of the people pleaser, who is likely to feel a drive to replicate the patterns of the past which strongly agitate for attention during the birth of a new generation.  This is because a new generation must be recruited into the covert dysfunctional family drama in order to keep the people pleaser stable.  If they are not, they become the outsiders who must be split off and denied.

Children born into these families, who are also candidates for offspring Stockholm syndrome simply by virtue of being children, are destined to carry the sins of their grandfathers and grandmothers, as the unresolved trauma pattern is passed down the line.  Alice Miller speaks of this in the Drama of Being a Child in which she describes the way that children accept the brutalities meted out by their parents, ‘forget’ them and then, when they become parents themselves, mete out the same punishments as an unconscious repetitive pattern which brings relief to the damaged child within.  When children are maltreated emotionally and psychologically, it is much harder to discern than when a child is physically harmed because the child does not know that the care they are receiving is harmful, especially when it is being meted out with a ladleful of people pleasing behaviour.  The message, ‘you are loved to the capacity to which you are willing to please me‘, becomes a normalised experience for such children, who, in their complete dependency upon the abuser, will become the willing carrier of the transmission of trauma through the generations.

In his book, Oliver James provides a startling example of how the emotional abuse of children through forcing them to meet the needs of a parent rather than have their own needs met, is intimate terrorism.  The passage goes (page 25) –

Although in itself a small thing, done repeatedly I can prime my children to anticipate such dumping of my emotional toxic waste upon them.  The patterns become a form of emotional abuse….I can get my children to live in unwitting fear of my bad moods…..use domestic arrangements to subtly torment them…..It becomes a form of intimate terrorism, so that I only have to use a buzzword or display a gesture for that to signal to the child that the abusive pattern is about to happen.  The child finds themselves walking on eggshells, looking out for signs that it is going to happen, living in fear of it.

This is what I observe in those pure cases of parental alienation where children have become the carriers and conduits for the unresolved traumas.  This trans-generational haunting pattern, which I have written about previously is a powerful configuration of signals which speak of something in the history of the family which is unresolved in someone. The manner in which the unresolved trauma is carried forward, is the turning inside out and upside down of the parent/child relationship, so that instead of having their needs met as a sovereign individual, the child learns to gains safety, security and a welcome in the world, from regulating the emotional disturbance of the parent.

The question which arises in this exposure of a dysfunctional and disruptive pattern of covert child abuse, is why is it not more widely recognised.

The answer to that, is, in my view, due to the manner in which the family, as the crucible of all that is good and bad about our society, was, some fifty years ago, taken over by a way of thinking about the world which made sense to a lot of women.  Particularly women who had suffered at the hands of their fathers and grandfathers.  Abused women.  Women who, instead of resolving the experience of having been abused, turned their focus outside of themselves to the belief that the cause of their suffering was a structurally imposed patriarchy which suppressed their needs and inflicted abuse.  The sins of the fathers and grandfathers became evidence that the whole of mankind requires reconditioning and suddenly, in the seventies, rather than therapy, political ideology marched its way across the consciousness of the world and the problems in the family were re-attributed to the gender war.

And since then, whilst women left men in their thousands, taking their children with them, the gender war has raged and the needs of children in the post separation landscape have been completely ignored.

Trauma patterns of believing that a child has been abused when they have not, have been reconfigured as dangerous dads and victim mothers.  The role of men in family life has been scrutinised, brutalised, politicised and dramatised.  Men as fathers have had to defend their position, find ways of becoming more acceptable, they have had to ditch their ‘toxic’ masculinity and adapt to the demands of a rampantly controlling feminist agenda which has hidden the harm that women can do to children, especially when they carry unresolved trauma.

In this landscape, Gardner located and recognised a child’s maladaptive response to being the carrier of the familial trauma as the eight signs of alienation.  Underneath these signs lie the pages of the dysfunctional family script.  In this landscape, the abuse of mothers which is unresolved and therefore  passed down the line to the child through the vehicle of the distorted parent/child relationship, is reconfigured as being about protective mothering and abusive fathering and battles between mothers rights and fathers rights group rage.

Some blame Gardner for taking everyone off piste, whilst ignoring the reality of the landscape in which Gardner did his work in the first place.  A landscape which is shaped and controlled by dominant forces which look through a particular (feminist) lens.  Blaming Gardner, whilst ignoring the feminist controlled environment, is a bit like focusing the blame on the prison guard whilst letting the prison governor off the hook.  Nothing can be removed from the environment it operates in, an environment which influences the development of ideas and thinking powerfully and in the case of feminist ideology, in a strongly biased manner.

In this feminist dominated landscape, individual women are not held responsible for the harm they are conveying in the intra-psychic world of the child they have control over and men may be considered abusive simply for wanting to have a relationship with their child.

And at the heart of it all are children. Born helpless into the world and dependent.  Bound to their parents through their incapacity to do anything other than conform to the wishes of their mother and father be they for good or for bad.

Hidden currently behind a wall of belief that children’s needs are indivisible from those of their mother, this wall is made of other people’s subjective experiences. Which means that objective reality is whatever people feel it to be.

I have been saying it for years.  Feminist ideology has no place in the understanding of the family and its therapeutic needs. It especially has no place in any kind of work to uncover and heal trans-generational haunting wounds.

The sins of the grandfathers and grandmothers become the sins of the mothers and fathers and the children are destined to live out the unresolved burdens of the past.  To start a new way of thinking and working with children we need to scrap the ideology and build a framework in which the abused are recognised as needing help and the by standers made helpless (rejected parents) are enabled to provide the healthy care which provides the child with a chance of becoming the transformational character in the dysfunctional landscape.

There is no good/bad split in this world, just men, women and the relationship between them and their capacity as parents to meet the needs of their children.

And when we recognise that, we will arrest the intergenerational march of familial trauma and terrorism

And the haunting will stop.



  1. “The question which arises in this exposure of a dysfunctional and disruptive pattern of covert child abuse, is why is it not more widely recognized.”

    I think it is not recognized due to the inability of most people to observe the multi-generational aspect of this. How many “outsiders” are privy to such a long-term observation? And even then, how many are cognizant enough of the maladaptive patterns to even see them?

    I liken it to “not seeing the forest for the trees”. My experience – the trans-generational haunting running through xW’s FOO is crystal clear to me now, but was not for the decades that I experienced it first hand.

    There was talk of how “Grandma” had hated, detested “Grandpa’s” family. To the point of severing any and all contact with them (outsiders?). But – this was related to me second or third-hand. These were people who I didn’t know, grandparents, aunts & uncles, cousins who were exiled from “the family”, but who were never part of my life. I only saw the trees, and didn’t really pay it much mind.

    xW’s mother hated, detested her husband’s family. This I was closer to, but still it involved people I had never met, for all I knew they deserved to be hated, detested, etc. Another string of grandparents, aunts & uncles, cousins who were never to be a part of “the family”. But – this didn’t really affect me (sic), so I went off on my happy way, just trying to avoid the trees.

    Oh – and there were plenty of other “outsiders” too. Neighbors, school officials, work associates, the family who ran the local Deli, etc. The visceral hate and contempt for so many of these was what eventually led me to “splitting”, then to BPD.

    But as I said, when in the thick of it, with an intimate exposure to multiple generations, I never saw this for what it truly was. Yes, I knew there was a lot of crazy going on, but that was never going to visit upon my doorstep…

    And then xW detested my mother, who died having not seen her only grandchildren in over 4 years. Still my head was spinning, trying to make sense of it all. What it took was to draw up a simple genealogy chart, tracing the generations. And then I took a black magic marker, a thick one. And I drew “X” after “X” after “X”. And I finally was able to see the forest.

    Karen – I have read so much of your work. This one moved me like no other. And your courage in exposing the toxic ideology that accepts, encourages and rewards this toxic behavior – please have your helmet ready for the hate that that will win you.

    Thank you.


  2. Fantastic words of true wisdom.

    There is no good/bad split in this world, just men, women and the relationship between them and their capacity as parents to meet the needs of their children.

    And when we recognise that, we will arrest the intergenerational march of familial trauma and terrorism

    And the haunting will stop.

    Hits the nail squarely on the head.


  3. You’ve been to hell and back, into the shadow and become the light. You’ll do.

    Nailed it Karen.

    I hope 2018 is magnificent for you and the work. Xx


  4. Correction, non correction, I was going to correct my last comment to ‘and you release the light’ but, it’s true to say when you release the light you light the way, become the light….so, it’s not exactly a correction, more of an advancement, improvement.

    Anyway, enough of my cacophony here’s a song from In Spades.

    Almost outter space.

    The Spell – Afghan Whigs

    It was sabotage until
    Dream transcended purpose
    In time the revelator comes for thee

    Who cut the demons down
    Laid bare to show you how
    One comes a distant memory

    Play dead for a moment child

    I wanna go deep down
    To where my soul let’s go
    Take my fantasy
    Lay it on the table
    And are you gonna see the light
    Or are you gonna be the light
    I wanna free the light
    And lose control
    Lose control

    He come flat top candy cane
    He come slithering down again
    If I’m on fire
    then you best follow me home

    If black is invisible baby
    The fact indivisible baby

    Be the light
    Free the light

    Day not wasted
    Dream not tasted
    Theres no faking lust this time or ever.

    Free the light
    Be the light
    See the light

    So it goes
    So it goes



  5. It seems there are a lot of female victims of childhood violence that become involved in the Domestic Violence and Child Protection politics.

    When they maintain critical thinking skills they can become very powerful in a positive sense. However many seem to loose critical thinking, making “maleness” or “all men” their enemy (rather than “the individual man” that abused them). They become dangerous to both men and the very women they purport to be helping, by going against the honest evidence behind DV and fabricating “evidence” and “solutions” that are anti-male, anti-children and in some ways even anti-women.

    A recent Australian TV documentary was about a politician, a minister for the prevention of violence against women, who was herself a child victim of DV. The documentary asks the question “did the DV come down the generations?”. They look only at the male line and find the grandfather wasn’t violent so it (allegedly) didn’t come down the generations. They didn’t even ask about the paternal grandmother, despite there being lots of talk of how the maternal grandmother violently abused the mother (as a child).

    That is just how blind some childhood victims of violence can become, and yet they are leading the country.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. I’d be interested to see your analysis of children of extreme neglect from their sense of self i.e. adult children with BPD or NPD whose behaviour and cognitive functioning is impaired to the point where it is directly affecting their lives and the lives of their children as they don’t, for me, fit into this paradigm.



    You might be interested in this. On the tv last night. With Emily Maitlis. An exclusive interview with the woman who fought to bring Harvey Weinstein to justice two decades ago.

    Towards the end of the interview the interviewer poses the question, should women be afraid of this man. Is he a threat to women? The reply she gets is quite revealing. she is told by the woman who has been allegedly victimised by Weinstein that he is a threat to everyone in the company. she has seen men abused by his power also. The interviewer, not to be put off by this revealing reply from the victim that this is about power and dominance rather than a gender issue, goes on the attack again with her pertinent questioning. Are women everywhere in danger from this man? The victim still seemingly unheard repeats her assertion that this is about power and dominance.
    Also we hear that Weinstein has admitted to being over sexed and has agreed to go on some sort of counselling course, presumably to appease the feminists.

    You are right when you say we live in a world that believes men are to blame simply because they are men. This is a very distorted and prejudiced way of seeing things.


  8. Anonymous:
    I didn’t watch Newsnight and to be quite honest I don’t have an opinion one way or the other about Harvey Weinstein. Personally I take people as I find them. If they are pleasant and do no harm they’re fine by me whether they are a man or a woman, or bright purple with orange stripes. Life is too short. Most people I’ve had anything to do with have been just fine – men and women. Maybe I’m just lucky although meeting my husband didn’t turn out to be overly lucky and, come to think of it, once when I was young and at at Uni, and walking away from campus, some idiot in a mac flashed me and walked on. It happened so quick I never even saw what he was trying to flash at me. If he’d stayed long enough he might have realised his body part had not had much effect because I’d not actually seen it!

    My husband used to TELL me I was a man hater. I just thought………. oh grow up.

    The feminist argument goes right over my head though I have ‘tried’ to understand what is meant by feminism.

    Peace and Goodwill to all men (and women)


  9. That is so well explained and as another poster said – hits the nail on the head. When we were working out what was starting to happen with stepson and realise what it must be like for him, I remembered the story of the girl in Europe who became fond of her kidnapper and googled to find out the name of the syndrome – Stockholm Syndrome. We worked out that this is what was happening. Thank you so much for highlighting this. I just pray for him this Christmas far away.


  10. Reblogged this on Fathers Rights and commented:
    Excellent post. I first read about some of the issues that are mentioned in this blog post years ago when I read the excellent book “The Emotional Incest Syndrome” and she discussed the “shadow parent”.


  11. Ms Woodall, you have described my mother and father Perfectly. Thank you for so elegantly putting into words the pain I have carried all my life. My hope is that it ends with me. My children don’t need to inherit this family legacy.


  12. Well this article has really hit home for me. I’m a father of a 14-year-old boy who has been alienated from me for the last five years. His mother moved in with her two brothers and her father and this has exacerbated the Stockholm Syndrome process. Any attempts I have made to contact him or even to pass on a “dad said Hi”, has resulted in a catastrophic backlash like a swarm of bees from her side of the family attacking me with threatening phone calls your name on it . I receive emails from her solicitor and which are insensitive and hurtful to me because the young solicitor does not understand at all the grief that I have suffered regarding the loss of my once close and loving son. My son has totally turned against me and would I would say go to the point of reporting me to the police and making false allegations if I attempt to even say hello to him. We were once very close. This is a terrible situation and I thank you Karen for bringing to light some insights into the psychology of this matter.


    1. Going through it for 12 years Jason living here in Mammachooses. Writing a musical, likely with that as the title, about our lives. Hang in there, fight in court to get the child the expert therapy with you that he needs. If you don’t fight it, it only gets worse in that toxic environment.

      Karen, another amazing, articulate, accurate article but enough aliteration. I always identify qith your work as the father of a family suffering with PAS and mother’s reported trans-generational abuse and haunting. Been recently speaking with FSC trying to get your expert services from across the pond. DM me to discuss more details, in possibly doing remote sessions. logistics, referrals, possibly being an expert witness at my expense with travel, etc. . Will check out your prof. links.

      Thank you for covering this it would be life changing if could just get others to accept it. The preconceived notions and bias in DV and DCF work and the courts and legislation here is so real it’s nearly insurmountable.


  13. YOUR article is absolutely great because it is needed! This has to be talked about not only out loud BUT LOUDLY! If you haven’t read Lloyd deMause’s book on the HISTORY OF CHILDHOOD get it. Hard, intense and absolutely terrifyingly sad and horrible to read the truth about childhood. Also, read Haim Ginott! He and his wife were incredible mentors for many of us i the 60’s & 70’s trying to protect our children from the societal control and shame. Haim Ginott: “When a child hits a child, we call it aggression. When a child hits an adult, we call it hostility. When an adult hits an adult, we call it assault. When an adult hits a child, we call it discipline. I am [and have always been once I ‘found’ her been grateful for Alice Miller’s courage, she was shunned by therapists everywhere. Who wants to hear the truth about childhood when we have our own that we cover up. Alice Miller is almost alone in her absolute refusal to deny the truth about childhood. She comes out later [even after her son kind of trashes her] admitting and owning her own failure as a parent because of her wounds/her abuse. I could write reams right now about mine. I have been in recovery all my life to RE-COVER myself with acknowledgement and love. OKAY: FOR NOW THOUGH: CAUSE I WILL TRY TO WRITE REAMS HAHA. I’m a prolific writer, an astrologer and ONE person in the macrocosm of humanity that suffers from the STOCKHOLM SYNDROME of childhood. Interestingly I have been talking about that for days to my adult son and then I find this article in which it is spoken about! holy moly! connecting the dots! But for now I want to say that as much as I THINK THIS ARTICLE is very very good and needed, I disagree about a paragraph denouncing feminism. Either you really don’t get true feminism or you have issues with it. But I’m a very big advocate of the paradigm of feminism displacing the absolute truth of the patriarchal hold on girls AND boys: alike in power/control but different in how the gender is used to teach roles/rules that ARE different. But for now I won’t go into that. Here are Some Quotes About Feminism and Patriarchy that are ALL very good. thank you for this chance to share. aloha
    From bell hooks: “Visionary feminism is a wise and loving politics. It is rooted in the love of male and female being, refusing to privilege one over the other. The soul of feminist politics is the commitment to ending patriarchal domination of women and men, girls and boys. Love cannot exist in any relationship that is based on domination and coercion. Males cannot love themselves in patriarchal culture if their very self-definition relies on submission to patriarchal rules. When men embrace feminist thinking and practice, which emphasizes the value of mutual growth and self-actualization in all relationships, their emotional well-being will be enhanced. A genuine feminist politics always brings us from bondage to freedom, from lovelessness to loving.”Also from bell hooks: “We have to constantly critique imperialist white supremacist patriarchal culture because it is normalized by mass media and rendered unproblematic.”From Mary Daly: “The word ‘sin’ is derived from the Indo-European root ‘es-,’ meaning ‘to be.’ When I discovered this etymology, I intuitively understood that for a [person] trapped in patriarchy, which is the religion of the entire planet, ‘to be’ in the fullest sense is ‘to sin’.”From Andrea Dworkin: “Being female in this world means having been robbed of the potential for human choice by men who love to hate us. One does not make choices in freedom. Instead, one conforms in body type and behavior and values to become an object of male sexual desire, which requires an abandonment of a wide-ranging capacity for choice…”From Maria Mies, author of Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale, linking the division of labor under capitalism to the division of the sexes: “Peace in patriarchy is war against women.”From Yvonne Aburrow: “The patriarchal/kyriarchal/hegemonic culture seeks to regulate and control the body – especially women’s bodies, and especially black women’s bodies – because women, especially black women, are constructed as the Other, the site of resistance to the kyriarchy. Because our existence provokes fear of the Other, fear of wildness, fear of sexuality, fear of letting go – our bodies and our hair (traditionally hair is a source of magical power) must be controlled, groomed, reduced, covered, suppressed.”From Ursula Le Guin: “Civilized Man says: I am Self, I am Master, all the rest is other–outside, below, underneath, subservient. I own, I use, I explore, I exploit, I control. What I do is what matters. What I want is what matter is for. I am that I am, and the rest is women & wilderness, to be used as I see fit.”From Kate Millett: “Patriarchy, reformed or unreformed, is patriarchy still: its worst abuses purged or foresworn, it might actually be more stable and secure than before.”From Adrienne Rich, Of Woman Born: “There is nothing revolutionary whatsoever about the control of women’s bodies by men. The woman’s body is the terrain on which patriarchy is erected.”


    1. I think we would get on well Vicki and perhaps I could show you that the quotes you give us are coming from a split off experience of relationships in which patriarchy makes sense to you because of your childhood experience. I understand the wish to liberate the self from the shackles of the past and how that, on a macro level, makes feminism make sense to you but in truth, those things that you quote are simply not liberating statements, they are statements which keep you bound to an abusive past. I know you need to hang on to where you are in your belief so that is as much as I will say. Let me just gently say this though – when you hang on to a belief that there was a deliberately created and maintained ‘patriarchy’ which governed your body and mind and that feminism is what freed you from that, you divide yourself from. half of humanity and keep on the blinkers which prevent you from having 360 degree vision. Who is ‘civilised man?’ Is he your brother, your father, your grandfather, who does this image of Ursula bring to mind for you that requires you to resist/rebel? Is civilised man your son? In the pursuit of a dream that men can be like women, shall we dispose of all things that men do and have done for the world and shall we simply say that those things are wrong/harmful/damaging to humanity? Do men not conform to a weight of expectation in the world to be strong, powerful, protective, objective and more and this at the behest of women as much as men? Was patriarchy built just by men to subjugate women or did the power structures of the past evolve with the participation of men AND women. When you begin to explore this, the reality of feminism (Particularly as it is espoused today) becomes clearer. Its project is to separate men and women and to subject men to the same silencing that (some) women have faced over the years. I was a feminist. I am not now. Since I left that cult of the mind behind my work to bring equality, love, freedom of mind and more to men and women but most of all children, has expanded ten fold.

      The red stockings of New York in their manifesto told us –

      Women are an oppressed class. Our oppression is total, affecting every facet of our lives. We are exploited as sex objects, breeders, domestic servants, and cheap labor. We are considered inferior beings, whose only purpose is to enhance men’s lives. Our humanity is denied. Our prescribed behavior is enforced by the threat of physical violence.

      Because we have lived so intimately with our oppressors, in isolation from each other, we have been kept from seeing our personal suffering as a political condition. This creates the illusion that a woman’s relationship with her man is a matter of interplay between two unique personalities, and can be worked out individually. In reality, every such relationship is a class relationship, and the conflicts between individual men and women are political conflicts that can only be solved collectively.

      III We identify the agents of our oppression as men. Male supremacy is the oldest, most basic form of domination. All other forms of exploitation and oppression (racism, capitalism, imperialism, etc.) are extensions of male supremacy: men dominate women, a few men dominate the rest. All power structures throughout history have been male-dominated and male-oriented. Men have controlled all political, economic and cultural institutions and backed up this control with physical force. They have used their power to keep women in an inferior position. All men receive economic, sexual, and psychological benefits from male supremacy. All men have oppressed women.

      Have all men oppressed women? Do all men receive economic, sexual and psychological benefits from male supremacy?

      Look closer, think critically. Alice Miller did and she was lambasted for doing so. As I often am and others who ask bigger questions.

      I am really glad you are here Vicki, I look forward to more conversations.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s